If you're in business, paying tax is unavoidable - but it doesn't have to be painful. Read about rates, reliefs and what to do if you're investigated.

Tax - overview

Good tax planning is essential for small businesses. Read our practical information on how business income is taxed, key business taxes and tax help

Property taxes - overview

Understanding business property taxes can help you take advantage of tax reliefs and ensure you aren't caught out by unexpected charges. Our guide.

Self-employment - overview

Being self-employed as a sole trader can be a straightforward way to be in business - but you need to comply with your tax obligations. Our guide.

VAT - overview

Our overview of how VAT works, when you might need to (or choose to) become VAT-registered and what your obligations will be if you do.

Tax self assessment - overview

While nobody likes paying income tax, the right approach to your tax return will minimise aggravation and can reduce the amount you end up paying.

Capital gains - overview

Effective planning can minimise your liability for capital gains tax by taking advantage of available allowances and reliefs. We explain your options.

National Insurance - overview

Although it can affect your entitlement to some state benefits, effective tax planning may allow you to reduce your NI contributions. Our overview.

Payroll and benefits - overview

If you have employees, you'll almost certainly be required to operate PAYE to collect income tax and NI contributions. Our guide to the basics.

Corporation tax - overview

Corporation tax is charged on taxable profits including trading profits and most investment profits as well as capital gains. What you need to be aware of.

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Annual Tax on Enveloped Property

Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (previously called Annual Residential Property tax) is payable on certain high-value, enveloped properties.

Brown building on a clear sunny day

Business rates

UK business rates, which are largely unavoidable, are a tax on non-domestic property and they vary depending where the premises are located.

Man in blue top working from home using a laptop

Business rates and working from home

If you work from home, you may be liable for business rates for the part of your home you use for work - in addition to council tax on the domestic parts of the property.

Man in white shirt using a laptop to do a business tax plan

Business tax planning

Effective tax planning is essential if you are to minimise your tax bills. Simple tax planning can significantly reduce your tax liabilities.

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Chargeable gains for companies

Company capital gains tax can be reduced, deferred or eliminated altogether by making use of available allowances, reliefs and exemptions.

Corporation tax

Corporation tax

All incorporated companies need to pay corporation tax on their profits. Our guide to calculating, paying and minimising corporation tax.

Person in a grey top holding a pen working out their corporation tax using a calculator

Corporation tax returns

All active UK limited companies (and some dormant ones) must file corporation tax returns, typically, every year: file yours properly and on time.

Male employee in a suit with two hands on the steering wheel driving a car

Employee benefits and tax

Employee benefits can be complicated. You need to ensure that your payroll systems deal with employee benefits properly and report in real time.

Group of employees sat around a messy desk discussing national insurance

Employee National Insurance

Minimising employees' Class 1 NI contributions directly benefits the employee and the employer, by making it easier to recruit and retain employees.

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Employment status

Many businesses start out as part-time jobs or hobbies that develop into a business. It's possible to be employed and self-employed simultaneously.


How will IR35 affect me?

IR35 rules change from April 2021. Seb Maley of Qdos answers the frequent questions on IR35 tax changes for contractors.

People sitting around a large table with the word bonus written on it viewed from above

Introducing incentive pay - checklist

Pay is an important issue for you and your employees. Incentive pay can form a key part of that offer if you get your incentive pay scheme right.



You are legally obliged to operate PAYE for any employee with an income above the lower earnings limit.


PAYE penalties and appeals

Find out about how RTI penalties could apply to your business, depending on how many people you employ in each PAYE scheme, in this HMRC factsheet.

Time sheet for calculating payroll


HMRC expect you to file pay information accurately and on time - and employees also won't be happy if they aren't paid correctly. Managing payroll.


Personal tax planning and income tax

Income tax planning can make a significant difference to the tax you pay. You should take advantage of any opportunities to minimise your tax bill.


Self assessment online

How to register for self assessment online, your business or personal tax account, and where to find help with self assessment


Self-employed National Insurance

If you are a sole trader or in a partnership, you are liable for flat rate Class 2 and profit-related Class 4 National Insurance (NI) contributions.

Red bricked shopping street in a local English village

Stamp duty

Stamp duty land tax is payable on property and land purchases above set SDLT thresholds and applies to both freehold and leasehold transactions.

Using a calculator - Tax and National Insurance

Tax and National Insurance

Businesses and individuals must account for and pay various taxes. Understand your tax obligations and how to file, account and pay any taxes you owe.


Tax payment problems

If you have a tax problem, call HMRC. Whether you have a tax payment problem or not, it’s worth looking at ways to improve your cash flow management.

Three multicoloured wooden blocks with 'VAT' written on them

Common VAT problems

It can be easy to make mistakes with VAT - and ignorance is no defence. Here's our guide to some of the possible pitfalls and how to avoid them.


Self assessment deadlines

The deadlines for registering for self assessment, filing your self assessment tax return and paying any self assessment tax you owe

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Income tax allowances and reliefs

Your income tax allowances include allowable expenses which you can set against your taxable profits as well as the personal income tax allowance.

Businessman filling in a VAT return

VAT records

As well as ensuring you comply with your legal obligations under the "Making Tax Digital" initiative, maintaining accurate, current VAT records makes it easy to get the VAT you paid back.

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Corporation tax reliefs and allowances

It's worth understanding the different ways in which the annual investment allowance, other capital allowances and allowable expenses are treated.


Private residence relief

Private residence relief allows most homeowners to sell their homes without being liable for any capital gains tax on property profits.

Businessman calculating VAT return figures

VAT returns

The VAT return summarises your sales and purchases and the VAT relating to them. All the information you need should be in your VAT records.

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CGT toolkit for land and buildings

This toolkit supports tax advisers by providing guidance on the errors often found in tax returns re capital allowances for plant and machinery.

Tax written on notepad next to cup of coffee

Useful tax breaks for employers

Employers could be missing out if they don’t take advantage of key tax breaks. Find out if your small firm could benefit from tax reliefs.


Tax calculators

The best calculators we've found online, many of which come from official sources such as HMRC and the Valuation Office and are continuously updated.


Tax codes: the basics

Every worker has a tax code issued by HMRC. But what are they for and how do you know if yours is correct? We answer key questions about tax codes.


Simple ways to pay your tax bill

We all have to pay tax and there are a number of ways to pay your tax bill. We look at the main options for paying your tax bill.

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A guide to tax penalties

Tax penalties can be incurred if you make careless errors, while deliberate tax evasion or fraud can be treated severely - so avoid penalties.

Woman sat on a sofa holding a mug while claiming self-employed home expenses

Claiming home expenses FAQs

A series of frequently asked questions on what expenses you can claim when self-employed and working from home, including 'allowable expenses'.

Ripped yellow paper exposing 'Tax on dividends' written on white paper

Dividend allowances

The rules on the taxation of dividend income have changed. Discover what your personal dividend allowance is and what you will pay on income over this amount.

Man in a suit sat at a desk handing an employee an employment allowance slip

Employment Allowance

The Employment Allowance reduces the amount of employer’s Class 1 NICs payable. Find out how it works, who qualifies and how to claim.


R&D expenditure credits (RDEC)

RDEC credits and why smaller companies might claim them. RDEC qualifying criteria, RDEC rates and how to make an expenditure credit claim


Research and development grants

National, regional and other grants that support research and development and what they cover. How to apply for a research and development grant.


Research and development tax credit

Which companies are eligible for SME research and development tax credits, what costs you can claim and how to claim. How grants affect tax credits

Check if simplified expenses works for your business

Using simplified expenses

Tool to help self-employed businesses use fixed rates (‘Simplified Expenses’) to calculate how much to claim with mixed business and private use.

Tax saving on a calculator - What are the best ways to save tax?

What are the best ways to save tax?

Effective tax planning is the best way to reduce tax liabilities. That means planning in advance from business start up through to eventual exit.

An attractive women celebrates receiving confirmation of her tax refund

Claim a tax refund

If you think you paid too much tax in a previous tax year, use this HMRC tool to claim a tax rebate.

Group of construction workers in high-vis vests and white hard hats on site

Construction Industry Scheme

The Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) affects businesses involved in construction and some businesses which spend large amounts on construction.

Person holding a pen with 'start selling online' written in the middle of a notebook

eBay and tax

It is possible to make quite a bit of money selling your old stuff on eBay or at a car boot sale. But where do HM Revenue and Customs draw the line?

A man counts coins into a jar representing National Insurance contributions

Check your National Insurance record

Paying National Insurance contributions entitles you to certain state benefits such as a state pension. Check if you have enough years to qualify.

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Do you have a second income?

If you earn income from sources other than through your employer, you may be classed as being both employed and self employed.

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HMRC company car tax calculator

When a company car or van or fuel for private use is made available to an employee, there is deemed to be a benefit in kind, ie you pay tax on it.

Man in a blue shirt calculating his tax with a stack of money beside him

HMRC Tax checker tool

You can visit the HMRC website to use a handy online tool to check whether employees have paid too much income tax under the PAYE scheme.


Payslip checker tool

To ensure payslips show the right information, including tax and NI deductions, visit the UK Tax Calculators website to use an online payslip checker.

National Insurance

National Insurance

Employers pay employer National Insurance contributions (NICs) for each employee, and also collect their employees’ contributions. Our guide to NICs.