Tax

If you're in business, paying tax is unavoidable - but it doesn't have to be painful. Read about rates, reliefs and what to do if you're investigated.

Tax - overview

Good tax planning is essential for small businesses. Read our practical information on how business income is taxed, key business taxes and tax help

Property taxes - overview

Understanding business property taxes can help you take advantage of tax reliefs and ensure you aren't caught out by unexpected charges. Our guide.

Self-employment - overview

Being self-employed as a sole trader can be a straightforward way to be in business - but you need to comply with your tax obligations. Our guide.

VAT - overview

How VAT works for UK businesses, when to become VAT-registered, how to keep VAT records and how to complete a VAT return.

Tax self assessment - overview

While nobody likes paying tax, the right approach to your self assessment tax return could save you time and reduce the amount of income tax you have to pay.

Capital gains - overview

Effective planning can minimise your liability for capital gains tax by taking advantage of available allowances and reliefs. We explain your options.

National Insurance - overview

Although it can affect your entitlement to some state benefits, effective tax planning may allow you to reduce your NI contributions. Our overview.

Payroll and benefits - overview

If you have employees, you'll almost certainly be required to operate PAYE to collect income tax and NI contributions. Our guide to the basics.

Corporation tax - overview

A guide to corporation tax for small businesses: current tax rates, rules on tax returns and how to pay corporation tax.

Multiple detached properties by the road on a sunny day
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Annual Tax on Enveloped Property

Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (previously called Annual Residential Property tax) is payable on certain high-value, enveloped properties.

Brown building on a clear sunny day
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Business rates

UK business rates, which are largely unavoidable, are a tax on non-domestic property and they vary depending where the premises are located.

Woman working from home
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Business rates and working from home

Do you have to pay business rates when you are working from home? The answer is: it depends. Find out which home businesses could be liable for business rates.

Man in white shirt using a laptop to do a business tax plan
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Business tax planning

Effective tax planning is essential if you are to minimise your tax bills. Simple tax planning can significantly reduce your tax liabilities.

Company capital gains and capital losses
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Chargeable gains for companies

How to reduce company chargeable capital gains by offsetting capital losses; understanding capital allowances; how to pay less corporation tax.

Small business team calculating corporation tax
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Corporation tax

Corporation tax guide for small business owners. How to calculate and pay corporation tax and minimise the amount of tax you have to pay.

Woman calculating corporation tax for her business
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Corporation tax returns

The rules on corporation tax for UK limited companies including corporation tax deadlines and how to file a corporation tax return.

Group of employees: enjoying employee benefits and tax relief
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Employee benefits and tax

A guide to tax rules on employee benefits, including bonuses, commission, share schemes, childcare and employee gifts, and how they affect PAYE, payroll and P11D forms.

Employees in small business discussing employee National Insurance
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Employee National Insurance

Understanding employee National Insurance and how to minimise Class 1 NI contributions for both employers and employees

Bearded man in a blue sweater wearing glasses looking at his phone sat at a desk
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Employment status

Many businesses start out as part-time jobs or hobbies that develop into a business. It's possible to be employed and self-employed simultaneously.

Female building contractor affected by IR35
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How will IR35 affect me?

IR35 tax rules for UK contractors and freelancers: Seb Maley of Qdos answers questions on the new IR35 tax rules for contractors.

People sitting around a large table with the word bonus written on it viewed from above
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Introducing incentive pay - checklist

Pay is an important issue for you and your employees. Incentive pay can form a key part of that offer if you get your incentive pay scheme right.

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PAYE and RTI

You are legally obliged to operate PAYE for any employee with an income above the lower earnings limit.

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PAYE penalties and appeals

Find out about how RTI penalties could apply to your business, depending on how many people you employ in each PAYE scheme, in this HMRC factsheet.

Time sheet for calculating payroll
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Payroll

HMRC expect you to file pay information accurately and on time - and employees also won't be happy if they aren't paid correctly. Managing payroll.

Couple get personal tax planning advice from a financial advisor
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Personal tax planning and income tax

If you own a business, have property or have savings, personal tax planning can help you reduce your income tax bill, stamp duty and capital gains tax.

Registering for self assessment on the HMRC website
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Self assessment online

How to register for self assessment online, find your Tax Reference Number (UTR) and set up a personal tax account on the HMRC website.

High street premises: stamp duty rates and thresholds
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Stamp duty

Stamp duty land tax is payable on property and land purchases above certain thresholds; our guide explains stamp duty rates, stamp duty relief and stamp duty thresholds.

Using a calculator - Tax and National Insurance
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Tax and National Insurance

Businesses and individuals must account for and pay various taxes. Understand your tax obligations and how to file, account and pay any taxes you owe.

A man shows his empty pocket to indicate he is having tax payment problems
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Tax payment problems

If you have a tax problem, call HMRC. Whether you have a tax payment problem or not, it’s worth looking at ways to improve your cash flow management.

Calendar giving reminder of self assessment tax return deadline
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Self assessment deadlines

A guide to the deadlines for registering for self assessment with HMRC, filing your self assessment tax return and paying the tax you owe.

Business owner calculating income tax allowances and tax reliefs
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Income tax allowances and reliefs

A guide to UK income tax allowances, including personal income tax allowances and dividend allowances as well as tax reliefs for employees and sole traders.

Business owner doing accounts with VAT records
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VAT records

How to keep accurate VAT records and complete VAT returns under Making Tax Digital (MTD) rules.

Business owner calculating corporation tax
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Corporation tax reliefs and allowances

Reduce your corporation tax liability using corporation tax reliefs and allowances including the annual investment allowance and other allowable expenses.

Selling your home, private residence relief and CGT
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Private residence relief

A guide to private residence relief. Private residence relief allows homeowners to sell their homes without being liable for capital gains tax (CGT).

Business owner completing VAT return
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VAT returns

Everything you need to know about VAT: from keeping VAT records to completing VAT returns and complying with Making Tax Digital for VAT.

Person holding a small toy building in their hands with a key dangling from their finger
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CGT toolkit for land and buildings

This toolkit supports tax advisers by providing guidance on the errors often found in tax returns re capital allowances for plant and machinery.

Café owner smiling as he takes advantages of tax breaks for employers
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Useful tax breaks for employers

Tax breaks, tax reliefs and tax allowances for employers including employment allowance, Patent Box relief, business rates relief and annual investment allowance.

A woman uses a tax calculator
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Tax calculators

A guide to the best tax calculators, including NI calculators, income tax calculators, payroll calculators, company car tax calculators and VAT calculators.

Files showing different types of tax for tax codes
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Tax codes: the basics

Everything you need to know about UK tax codes, including how to find your tax code and how to change a tax code that's wrong.

Man and woman do business accounts and pay tax bill
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Simple ways to pay your tax bill

How to pay your tax bill: a guide to paying the tax you owe to HMRC, including online payments, paying by cheque, paying by direct debit and paying tax via your bank.

Man holding a red card
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A guide to tax penalties

How to avoid paying tax penalties to HMRC, including penalties for late filing, keeping inaccurate records or making errors on your tax return.

Tax rates on dividends
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Dividend allowances

UK dividend tax rates and allowances. Discover what your personal dividend allowance is and what you will pay on dividend income over this amount.

Small business team taking advantage of employment allowance
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Employment Allowance

Tax advice for UK employers: how to claim Employment Allowance and reduce the amount of employer’s Class 1 NICs you pay.

An overhead shot of a woman holding a pile or receipts as she claims research and development expenditure credits
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R&D expenditure credits (RDEC)

RDEC credits and why smaller companies might claim them. RDEC qualifying criteria, RDEC rates and how to make an expenditure credit claim

Business team working on new project as part of research and development (R&D)
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Research and development grants

A guide to research and development grants, including information on government grants, how to apply for a grant and R&D Tax Credits.

Three piles of coins with R&D balanced on top
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Research and development tax credit

Which companies are eligible for SME research and development tax credits, what costs you can claim and how to claim. How grants affect tax credits

A female business owner looking over her business expenses
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Using simplified expenses

Tool to help self-employed businesses use fixed rates (‘Simplified Expenses’) to calculate how much to claim with mixed business and private use.

An attractive women celebrates receiving confirmation of her tax refund
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Claim a tax refund

If you think you paid too much tax in a previous tax year, use this HMRC tool to claim a tax rebate.

Group of construction workers in high-vis vests and white hard hats on site
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Construction Industry Scheme

The Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) affects businesses involved in construction and some businesses which spend large amounts on construction.

eBay parcels delivered by someone selling on eBay
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eBay and tax

You make money selling your old stuff on eBay but do you have to pay tax on the money you make?

A man counts coins into a jar representing National Insurance contributions
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Check your National Insurance record

Paying National Insurance contributions entitles you to certain state benefits such as a state pension. Check if you have enough years to qualify.

Woman getting a second income by running a business  from home
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Do you have a second income?

Self assessment tax obligations when you have a second income from working as a freelancer, renting out property or selling items online.

Woman next to company car
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HMRC company car tax calculator

When a company car or van or fuel for private use is made available to an employee, there is deemed to be a benefit in kind - which means you pay tax on it.

Man in a blue shirt calculating his tax with a stack of money beside him
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HMRC Tax checker tool

You can visit the HMRC website to use a handy online tool to check whether employees have paid too much income tax under the PAYE scheme.

Close up shot of a payslip
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Payslip checker tool

Check your payslips show the right information, including tax and NI deductions on the UK Tax Calculators website.

National Insurance contributions
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National Insurance

National Insurance overview for employers to help minimise National Insurance Contributions (NICs) and understand National Insurance rates and allowances.

Company directors working on their directors' loan accounts
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HMRC directors' loan accounts toolkit

The HMRC directors' loan accounts toolkit can help anyone completing a company tax return to avoid the common mistakes relating to directors' loan accounts.